2022 Annual Meeting Presentations

Presentation Schedule & Continuing Education

Session 1 – Masonry Case Studies

Thursday, October 13th, 8:00 – 9:00 AM
Moderator: Michael P. Schuller, Atkinson-Noland & Associates

1A – Design & Construction of a Masonry Home: Lessons Learned and Recommendations
Presented by James R. Harris, Owner, J.R. Harris & Co.

James Harris, long-time TMS Member, and one of the most renowned designers in the world, has served as Chair of ASCE 7, member of ACI 318 and AISC 341 and 360, and many other Committees and groups, and has been recognized for his contributions in many ways including selection as a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Distinguished Member of American Society of Civil Engineers and an Honorary Member of ACI. In 2012, TMS learned that he decided to build his personal residence of masonry and of course we were thrilled and wanted to learn why and lessons learned. At the urging of many, he has graciously agreed to discuss why he decided to build his home from masonry and what he learned in doing so. Come learn some of the reasons why this prominent structural engineer chose masonry, why he selected the type of masonry he used, things he learned during the design/construction process, and how the home has been performing. He will offer insights on what he might do differently if he was to build another masonry home, challenges faced, and recommendations for TMS and the masonry industry on masonry home options.

1B – CANUS Project: Key Outcomes
Presented by Ece Erdogmus, PhD, Professor and Chair at the School of Building Construction, Georgia Institute of Technology

In 2019 and 2020 a large team of professionals and academics from the U.S. and Canada took on a methodical comparison of the design and detailing provisions for masonry construction in the two countries. The project is titled “Canada/US collaborative project: Harmonization of Canadian and American Masonry Structures Design Standards” and nicknamed CANUS. The scope of the investigation included the similarities and divergences between the two design standards (limit state design and strength design methodologies of CSA S304-14 and TMS 402-16, respectively), through a comparative discussion of the provisions, parametric studies that illustrate the differences quantitatively, and case studies. This presentation will summarize the key takeaways from this project and the identified areas of future research.

Handout (PDF)

Ece Erdogmus is a Professor and Chair at the School of Building Construction at Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). She is a licensed Professional (Civil/Structural) Engineer. As part of her 2019/2020 sabbatical, she worked with NCMA and served as one of the program coordinators for the CANUS program. She is an active member of TMS serving as the Chair for the Structural Members subcommittee of TMS402/602, member of the Technical Activities Committee, chair of the upcoming

1C – From Rail Commuters to Autonomous Vehicles – Guastavino Vaulted Ceilings Have You Covered
Presented by Tom Elliott, CSI, CDT, Director of Industry Development and Technical Services for the International Masonry Institute

The Michigan Central Station in Detroit, MI was an architectural gem when completed in 1913, but fell into disrepair when Amtrak stop using the terminal in 1988. The building is now being repurposed to help usher in a new means of transportation-autonomous vehicles. This presentation will explain repair techniques used to restore these unique masonry elements.  Learn what training methods were used and how mockups allowed the craftworker to understand what they would be working on.  See how today’s craftworkers, using ancient methods, can repair these Guastavino vaulted ceilings for another century of use.

Handout (PDF)

Tom is the Director of Industry Development and Technical Services for the International Masonry Institute. He is a frequent lecturer to local, regional, and national construction industry groups. Tom joined Bricklayers Local #5 in 1985 and has been part of the masonry industry ever since, working as a foreman, superintendent, project manager as well as a mason contractor. For the International Masonry Institute, he coordinates activities in Ohio, Michigan, and Northern Kentucky, promoting masonry to a wide variety of audiences including owners, contractors, architects, engineers, and craftworkers.

Tom is an active member of BAC Local #5 and is involved in several organizations including the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI), The Masonry Society (TMS), and The International Masonry Training and Education Foundation (IMTEF)

Session 2 – Review of Recent and Upcoming Masonry Research Projects

Thursday, October 13th, 9:00 – 10:00 AM
Moderator: Nebojsa Mojsilovic, Ph. D., ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) Zurich

2A – Pilot Program to Determine Appropriate Lambda Factors for Design of Reinforced Masonry with Lightweight Grout
Presented by Laura Redmond, PhD, Assistant Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at Clemson University

Lightweight (LW) aggregates improve fire resistance, moisture resistance, and durability of concrete. However, the ACI 318 code includes a modification factor (lambda) to account for reduced tensile capacity in LW concrete. LW aggregates are not currently permitted for use in masonry grout due to lack of test data to establish appropriate modification factors for the TMS 402/602 code. This presentation will discuss a recent pilot program at Clemson University/NCMA that aimed to experimentally determine how masonry assemblies constructed with light weight grout compared to the performance of specimens with normal weight grout for tensile breakout and shear breakout capacity of cast-in-place bent-bar anchors, modulus of rupture tests, diagonal shear tests and lap splice tests. The presentation will discuss the experimental program and findings, draw preliminary conclusions on the form of a potential lambda factor for light weight grout, and outline the future research needed in order to establish provisions for light weight grout in the TMS 402/602 code.

Handout (PDF)

Laura Redmond is an Assistant Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at Clemson University. She received her BS, MS and PhD from Georgia Institute of Technology focused on detailed finite element modeling and full scale cycling testing of hybrid concrete-masonry structures. She is an active member of the masonry society and serves on the TMS 402 design subcommittee and the scholarship committee. Her research interests include advanced simulation and testing for structural design, health monitoring, and formal verification/validation methods.

2B – Creating a Roadmap to Adoption of High Strength Steel in Structural Masonry
Presented by Dimitrios Kalliontzis, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Houston

With the introduction of high strength steel in reinforced masonry structures, the intent is to reduce congestion of reinforcement, minimize the associated carbon footprint, broaden the design capabilities, and increase the competitiveness in the market share. Moreover, the adoption of high strength steel is necessary for the masonry industry in order to adapt to the increasing availability of reinforcement of higher grades being produced by the steel industry. However, the current design code of structural masonry, namely TMS 402-16, does not permit the use of high strength steel. The present research study at University of Houston is to conduct a series of numerical and experimental studies that will develop the information necessary for the code adoption of high strength steel in TMS 402.

In order to characterize the behavior of high strength steel in masonry, a number of lap-splice bond tests are under way in the Structures Laboratory of University of Houston. These tests will establish the basic code information needed to the design detailing of high strength steel. The experimental data generated through the lap-splice tests will be used to develop code equations pertaining to high strength steel and calibrate simplified analytical and high-fidelity numerical models. These models will be used to further explore the usage of high strength steel in masonry, including the detailing requirements and possible design capabilities.

Handout (PDF)

Dr. Dimitrios Kalliontzis is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Houston and TMS member. He has nearly 7 years of experience in the analysis and design of masonry structures with research contributions in the area of innovative reinforced masonry walls. Dr. Kalliontzis has been the author of several conference and journal publications featuring innovations in structural masonry design. His publications have been acknowledged by the 13th and 14th Canadian Masonry Symposiums with Honorable Mentions.

Prior to joining University of Houston, Dimitrios was a postdoctoral researcher at University of California San Diego where he investigated the seismic performance of the prestressed foundation piles in the San Diego Coronado Bridge and studied a new design concept for seismic-resistant rocking bridge piers. Dimitrios received his Ph.D. Degree from University of Minnesota, with a focus on self-centering precast concrete and masonry wall systems. Prior to joining University of Minnesota, he worked as a Technical Intern at SGH Inc. and earned his MSc in Structural Engineering from Iowa State University with a Research Excellence Award. He completed his Diploma Degree in Civil Engineering at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

2C – Strength of Masonry Beams with Openings and Varying Vertical Reinforcement using Strut-and-Tie Modeling
Presented by Jennifer Tanner, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Wyoming, and Josh Ring, EIT, Martin-Martin Wyoming

Openings are often required in structural elements for air vents, plumbing, electrical, and post-construction modifications. Strut-and-tie modeling (STM) has been proven to conservatively predict the strength of specialty concrete structures such as corbels, dapped ends, and deep beams with openings. The objectives of this study were to predict the strength of masonry beams with openings using STM and evaluate the effect of transverse reinforcement in masonry beams. To this end, a suite of 23 tests was conducted on masonry beams with openings of various sizes and locations. When experimental data are compared to various strut-and-tie models, results confirm that STM provides conservative predictions for the strengths of masonry beams with openings. Furthermore, beams with transverse reinforcement at the openings did not perform significantly better than beams without transversely reinforced openings.

Dr. Tanner is an Associate Professor at the University of Wyoming. Her research interest include durability of concrete and masonry, experimental testing, materials characterization, finite element modeling and creating design guidelines. She is former chair of ACI 526 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, co-chair of 440 L Durability of FRP, and has served as secretary of the TMS 402 subcommittee on AAC. Her teaching interests include Mechanics of Materials, Concrete and Masonry Design, Dynamics of Structures and Earthquake Engineering.

Session 3 – Existing Masonry

Thursday, October 13th, 10:15 – 11:15 AM
Moderator: Ed Gerns, LEED AP, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates

3A – Designing the ‘Right’ Mortar for the Job
Presented by Meera Ramesh, PhD, Restoration Engineer, Ryan Biggs | Clark Davis Engineering & Surveying, D.P.C

The presentation will cover the most important mechanical properties that must be considered while designing mortars for restoration projects, and how those parameters are influenced by the choice of binder including natural hydraulic lime, air lime, and portland cement.

The focus will be on compatibility between mortar and substrate, and breathability. The former involves a discussion on the confinement of mortar & substrate in compression, which depends on the compressive strength and modulus of elastic of the chosen mortar in comparison to the strength and stiffness of the substrate, and the contribution of the mortar to the deformability of masonry. Breathability on the other hand depends on the porosity and pore structure of the binder chosen, and the binder-aggregate ratio. This parameter also affects freeze-thaw resistance, efflorescence, and consequently durability of the masonry.

The final few minutes of the presentation will cover rules of thumb which correlate different mechanical properties of mortars, and a couple of field techniques to assess an existing mortar in the absence of laboratory testing as a method of preliminary survey.

Handout (PDF)

Meera Ramesh, Ph.D., is a Restoration Engineer at Ryan Biggs Clark Davis Engineering & Surveying. She provides structural engineering analysis and design support of many of the firm’s historic preservation and facade restoration projects. She earned her Bachelor’s in Civil Engineering  (Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India), her Masters in SAHC – Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions (University of Minho, Portugal and Czech Technical University; Czech Republic), and her PhD in Civil Engineering from the University of Minho. She has co-authored and reviewed multiple journal and conference articles on mortars and grouts, in the US and Europe. She is currently a member of the RILEM Technical Committee (TC) 277-LHS  (Specifications for Testing and Evaluation of Lime-Based Materials for Historic Structures) and the Existing Masonry Committee of The Masonry Society.

3B – Installing Remedial Wall Tie Systems
Presented by Alan Pettingale, Specialized Masonry Restoration

Things that can go wrong while installing remedial steel pins to stabilize masonry veneer. Learn about advancement in locating existing wall ties and studs and ways to determine the depth of the cavity in a wall. Recommendations of ways to identify and avoid possible obstructions such as electrical wires, plumbing, and electrical boxes will be given as well as thoughts on the role of forensics in determining needed remediation.

Handout (PDF)

Alan has thirty years of professional experience in masonry repair systems, site assessment surveys, forensic testing and implementing a wide range of remedial strategies for masonry stabilization.  Alan’s expertise is in the application of masonry restoration for schools, churches, colleges, historical, residential and commercial buildings in the United States and England.

He has co-authored papers on cavity wall tie corrosion investigation and lateral restraint anchors.  He also has a continuing education Historic Masonry Workshop available at The Masonry Society.

Mr. Pettingale serves on the Existing Masonry Committee of The Masonry Society.

3C – Nondestructive Evaluation of Stone Anchor Corrosion Effects
Presented by Torin McCue, Atkinson-Noland & Associates

Historic stone masonry often has embedded metal anchors connecting facing stones to masonry backup materials. Anchor corrosion causes damage to surrounding stone at metal anchor embedments, and the typical approach is to repair stone damage after it manifests itself as visible cracks or spalls. A new approach has been developed to evaluate subsurface damage before it becomes visible, thereby identifying potentially dangerous conditions and reducing the scope of repairs. The method uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo array system to identify subsurface cracks at anchor positions located using surface penetrating radar or pachometer equipment. Case studies are included showing how the method successfully located damaged anchorages at stone and cast stone materials, including one project where results were validated with a series of probe openings. Recommendations will be provided for using the approach with different materials and conditions.

Handout (PDF)

Mr. McCue is an engineer intern with Atkinson-Noland & Associates in New York City, specializing in evaluation and repair of masonry materials and structures.  Joining the firm in 2016, his current work includes nondestructive evaluation of modern and historic structures, condition assessment of structures, in-situ testing, and design of masonry repairs and strengthening. Mr. McCue received a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder, graduating with Magna Cum Laude honors. He also received a dual Master of Science in Civil Engineering from the University of Minho (Portugal) and the Czech Technical University in Prague, graduating with honors. His master’s thesis work involved designing a concrete mix that mimics ancient Roman seawater concrete, which was batched and tested for material properties necessary to calibrate a finite element model he used to perform thermo-mechanical analyses on existing Roman structures.

Session 4 – Design

Thursday, October 13th, 11:15 AM – 12:15 PM
Moderator: Jason Thompson, National Concrete Masonry Association

4A – ASTM Masonry Specifications and Testing Standards – A Summary of Recent Changes and Updates

This session will review changes in the Standards under the jurisdiction of ASTM C 12 Committee on Mortars and Grouts for Unit Masonry and C 15 On Manufactured Masonry Units. These committees maintain standards such as ASTM C 270 on mortars, C 90 on Concrete Masonry Units, C 216 on Clay Masonry Units, among many others. A summary of recent changes of select standards will be presented and discussed. Also discussed will be the planned merger ASTM C 12 and C 15 committees.

Handout (PDF)

Dr. Mark McGinley is a structural engineer and building scientist with more than 38 years of research and forensic engineering practice in building systems. He joined the faculty in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at the University of Louisville in 2007 and is a recognized expert in masonry building systems, in particular, masonry building envelopes. His research has included basic research on the structural performance of masonry walls, water penetration experiments on envelopes, building envelope performance of brick veneer and steel stud wall systems and building energy performance. Over 130 publications have resulted from his research efforts. Dr. McGinley has won numerous awards in masonry research and standards development, and leads technical committees in both the Masonry Design standard organization and ASTM. He is currently the Chairman of ASTM C 15, the Design Subcommittee of TMS 402 and past Chair of ASTM C 12. He is also the President of The Masonry Society. 

4B – Intersecting Wall Provisions: What Changed in TMS 402-2022 and Why
Presented by Heather A. Sustersic, PE, Colby Company Engineering

Detailing of masonry wall intersections has a significant impact on the flexural and shear behavior of masonry walls as well as their stiffness, whether used as part of the lateral force resisting system or as partition walls. TMS 402/602-22 restructured the intersecting wall provisions to allow greater flexibility in the methods design engineers use to achieve connection between structural intersecting walls. This presentation will summarize the new provisions and clarify when to use each for your next new building project.

Handout (PDF)

Mrs. Sustersic, P.E., is a practicing structural engineer with Colby Company Engineering in Portland, Maine, experienced in the design of new buildings, complex renovations, sculptures, and specialty engineering projects, as well as performing condition assessments of existing building structures for commercial and federal clients.  A former adjunct faculty member in the Architectural Engineering Department at The Pennsylvania State University, Mrs. Sustersic taught Design of Masonry Structures and Indeterminate Analysis courses, while also advising senior architectural engineering students in their thesis work.  Her research areas included engineering education and modeling the tornado-building interaction using combined computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis.  More recently, Mrs. Sustersic’s research efforts have centered on the CANUS harmonization project to identify opportunities for improvements in CSA S304 and TMS 402.  Mrs. Sustersic serves on the Board of Directors for TMS, is Chair of the Reinforcement and Connectors subcommittee to TMS 402 and is a voting member of the TMS 402 Main committee, the Structural Members subcommittee, the TMS 402 Executive committee, the Existing Masonry Committee, and the Meetings subcommittee.

4C – Essential But Otherwise Unimportant – TMS 402/602 and the Practicing Engineer
Presented by John M. Hochwalt, PE, SE, Director of Engineering for KPFF Consulting Engineers

Using TMS 402/602-22, the 2021 Haller Award Recipient will share his reflections on the relationship between the masonry building code, engineering practice, and successful projects. Why is the building code essential but otherwise unimportant? If the building code is unimportant, what concepts are important for practicing engineers to consider when designing masonry?

Handout (PDF)

John M. Hochwalt was awarded the Haller Award by The Masonry Society in 2021 and is Director of Engineering for the Seattle Structural group of KPFF Consulting Engineers. He has practiced structural engineering for over thirty years, and is a frequent author and editor of publications about the engineering of masonry structures. His publications include the Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook for the Masonry Institute of America (co-author James Amrhein) and Strength Design of Masonry for The Masonry Society (co-author Richard M. Bennett.) John is also active in the development of the masonry building code, TMS 402/602, serving as chair of the subcommittee for Seismic and Limit Design, and as voting member of the main committee.